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BML Issue October 2021

Editorial   Mongyuh reih ta cha ‘Typological Error’ tah ei ta, a chyunazie ta ‘Typose’ chhao ama tah tyh hra. Châropa liata chhuh chheipa reina a châ. Châ chhuhpa liata chhuh chheipa he ‘Pazu nata chaolahmei’ ama reipa hawhta hmô khoh awpa ta y tyh ei ta; eima khopa hmo châ leipa ta, khôkhâh lyh-lia achhuah tyh taraw pi ta, eima khôkhâh thei tyh leipa hmo a châ. Chhuhtuhpa mokhaoh liata phie a do khai ha tyh ta, asohsi lei vâ châ hra sala maochhie kaw muarua awpa deikua châ hlei vei. Chhuh chheipa he pei kaw ta, â chhuahpa nata yzie lei khaina taihta chhuh chheipa chhochhi he cha pei a hria pahthu thei kaw. Eima râh liata châ chhuhpa nata khiliah liata châ tawpazy he zôpha kawpa ta eima reih khiahta cha â do leipa a hluh kaw. Chhuh chheipa he cha pahnothai achhih via ta, ado bohbi leipa deikua maochhie âchhih kaw tyh. Zawpi rei thei awpa nata hmô thei awpa ta châropa rai rai he cha a rakhapa chhâta â do awpa â ngiah. Eima vaw pahnopasia leipa nata thai pasia leipa a y khiahta c

BML Issue January 2021



Editorial

  

              Khazohpa ngiachhiena nata chhihthana zawhzi ta kô thiehpa, 2021 cha vaw tlô ha heih pi ta, aly’pa a châ ngaita.

              Kô 2021 he ahy ta hmahta amâ chhih chhielie  beih leipa, eima zydua châta lâpi thiehpa a châpa hawhta a chado kawpa nata asohsi kawpa ta eimâ chhih/sie chyu awpa a peimawh ngaita aw.

              Kô 2021 he chyhsa hluhpi ta tlô awpa khoh kaw ei ta, anodeikua tlô thei leipa ama hl;uh ngaita. Cha nota keimo, Khazohpa hmiakô liata siana nata tlohna rai a hnei leipazy tlai a ngiachhiena miah patosa ta, kô thiehpa miah a tlôkhei heihpa he eimâ mohpasia chyu awpa nata, Khazohpa ngiachhiena he eima pachâpazi chyu awpa kho â chhih kaw.

              BML chhao Khazohpa chhihthana vâta hmahsiena lâ pangai lymâ hra pi ta, eima Magazine, thlachareih a puapa, ‘HLA NATA BIE’ chhao a palâ kawpa ta papua pazao thei lymâ hra pi ta, he zydua he nama thlahchhâ  kheina nata nama deichhyna vâta a châ tah leithei ma pi.

              Atakô 2021 liata eima kaw sie lymâ n’awpa liata chhao nama deichhyna nata pasopakâna eimâ ngiah via lymâ aw. Eima magazine hmahsie via lymâ thei n’awpa ta eima zydua ta eima hriaparaoh via lymâ awpa a byuh. Article pha kawpazy vaw roh lymâ u la, nama khih kiahpâh/chheipâh liata hmo ypatluapa/anano patluapa/mopha kawpazy ama thâtihzy vaw roh chyu tyh u la, nama khih thâtihzy vaw roh tyh u la, nama khih nata nama chhôhkha ta ngâlâh hmo nama pahnopa kha Mara râh pahno awpa ta vaw phualuah chyu hra awpa ta a khokhei pi ta eimâ pasyu.

              Nama khih chheipâh liata hmo ypa kha he Hla nata Bie Magazine hmâpa heta a moh vaw pathâhsa la, chyhsazy ta ama hmô byuh kaw awpa, Mara râh zawpizy ta pahno hra ei sala tahpa ta na vaw saduthie tyhpa cha a hmeiseihpa vaw pachâsa mah y.

              Mara reih pabohsa ta palaiseihsa awpa heta chyhsa hropa maohphaohna châ leipa ta, nâma nata keima he peimawh chai pi ta, nâma nata keima heta palôhraoh kawpa ta keih eima chakâ khiahta la Mara reih he aboh aw ta, hmah a sie cheingei aw tahpa a thiehpa ta pahno heih ei suh u.

 

 

 

 

BÔHZYU KHIH BUANA

 

~  Ng. Phosa, Tisi

 

              Nohhro hawhta tao awpa a y tu leipa hnaihta ei khao na vaw bâ pâ ta, dyuchhai seihpa liata apazawhna chôta unawh HC. Malsawmthanga ( Sawma) châbu ‘Huhiehna Tlâh’ tahpa ei reihpapua khai hachiehpa cha ai  âchhih leipa ta ei pahnopa vâta la heih na ta, Machâ A. Zakia(L) he ei chyhsa pasâhsapa pakha a châ hleikhô ta Class-I ei chu nota nâ pachutuhpa pakha (Headmaster châ ta, Maths maniah a pachu tyh) a châ hrapa vâta bo 24-na Machâ A. Zakia nata Bielôhawhpa tahpa  cha zôphata ta reih na ta. Reipha tah kaw na ta, ei rao na bâpa chhao pahno khao hra va na.

Cha hawhta biepha kawpa ei rei haino chata chyhsa pakha chysia râhpa akypa he eima ochhôh a vaw ngia ta, dyuchhai seihpa nochhi lâchhâh ta eima patyupa; notla lâ chhâh a kaw heihpa liana chata atyuna paryh ta. Ei hmia pahno beih leipa a châpa hnaihta khichhaipa a châ cheingei nahta pangiasa na ta, châbie ei rei ngâhaipa cha lôh-y kawna chôta pakhu na ta, ochareipa paw cha bie a chho ha hra na ta. Buakha bielôhawhpa eima rei khai tawhta no-âh ei tah ngaitapa Bôhzyu khih buana thâtih chho awpa ta avypa a châzie na chho ta, o chô sâhpa bypa lâ khy pi ta, atyunazy eimâ paryh khai tawhta he bie he eina chho.

Bôhzyu  tahpa he na pahnopa hawhta eima mahnô-mahpawzy khata athihpa khih reina châta ama vaw hmâh tyhpa châ ta, athihpa khih liata rairuna-buabâna eimâ tyhpa he na pahno awpa a byuhpa ta ei pahno. Buana hluhpi hry ta a paru viapa deita ei cha chho chy aw. Abyuhna hawhta nama khih mo, viasa richâhzy hnohta rie na vaw phualuah awpa chhaota ei châ haw.

Sâkhana liata nô pakha : Siahlaonô he  1980  kô liana khata Bôhzyu khih liata a vaw paih ta, pahrâna o a hnei mâh leipa hnaihta thobuh ryzy liata ypa ta, a nohchareih hro cha hmâh tyh ta. Eimâ sadu tyhpa hawhta Hroliah khih tawhta chhôhkha-sanawhzy ta kô 1 a tloh nahta osana chhaichhi vaw ama vaw paphaopa hmâpa ta opa-lyuhrizy pi ta a pahrâna o awpa cha sapa pita, cha liana cha a pahrâ. Eima hiahrina maniah âchhyna liata cha ama paw nata sawzy cha Bôhzyu khih lâta a vaw paih hra awpa ama khoh leizie he pasa kaw ta, ama paw deikua cha khatima cha â vaw paih pyly hra nahta a pangiasazie a reih.

Kô khazie tlaima a khô tawhta nô pakha : Leivânô tahpa ta ama awpa he eima khih liana chata a vaw paih hra ta, â vaw paih tawhta kô 1 khôpa liata Hroliah khih tawhta chhôhkha sanawhzy ta osana chhaichhi ama vaw paphaopa hmâpa chata Siahlaonô o kiah liata a pahrâna awpa o cha eima sapa hra. He nôhmeipa pano nah he adyh kaw tyh ei ta, nâma-keima atahpa ta palôh hmao hkha phaopa ta atlapei kawpa ama châ.

Kô charu (6) a vaw khô ha, nohkha cha paw pakha he eima khih liata vaw tlô ta, eima khih liata â vaw paihzie maniah chho ta. Ahyzy chhôhkhapa ma a châ, amoh ahy ma, ahy paw ama tahma tahpa hiahrina cha Siahlaopaw tahpa ta ama aw tyhpa nata a thâtih hropazy chhao maniah chho ta. Chata a châ khiahta cha kô 12 tlai a vaw sie hapa liata Siahlaonô vahpa a châzie pahno papua ha pita, chavâta Siahlaonô pahrâna o lâna chata va chhihtha pi ta, he he eima buana â thaona a châ. Siahlaonô o kiapâh eima tlô nahta, “ Eima paw, cha nâ vaw paih hawh muarua cha la ! Kô khazie tlaima cha einâ vaw chadai ngyu aw chi tahpa pangiasana hneipa ta cha vaw hâ tyh na ta, tahmâ ei cha hmôpa cha ei cha vâ tu ha na” tahpa ta apyhpahly ta. Siahlaopaw chhao chata amia nô a vâpa cha pasa hra tlôh tah ta, thata arie ei ta. Ama kiapâh liata ypazy pi ta eima ngia maniah chhie ta, amo ru eima tah kaw sai hra.

Cha hawhta eimâ chalih khai thlâh nota Leivânô cha a o tawhta kaw pua ta, Siahlaopaw a vaw hmôpa cha vâ sao ha ta, “Eima paw, tahmâ ma na vaw tlô ? Cha ei cha vâ muarua cha ! ” tahpa ta a vaw pyhpahly heih hra ta. Opa-lyuhri adyh kawpa Siahlaonô nata Leivânô cha Siahlaopaw a chhupa ta, thata a parai ei ta. Âmo cha atu ei ta, thata a eichhia ei ta, pachhaih thei awpa rimâ châ vei, cha eima bua  dâh la, eima luh pahiah ta, atao n’awpa rai pahno ma pi. Chata cha Siahlaopaw cha ahy o lâ hmahta adi thei khao leipa ta thobuh ry liana cha y tyh ta. Ama pathôh ta adyh tlâ leipa ei ta, raihria hoh khao hra veih ei, khitlâh liata ahmâh tlâ hra veih ei. Cha hawhta kô 1 khô tawhta Siahlaopaw o awpa ano-eih ta eima sa khai hapa chhaota ama nochâ ta palôhru riethei kawpa ta noh nata daihti cha amâ hmâh tyh. Ama sapa cheingei chhaota a tao kawpa ta pahno na ta, khati hmahta alyna noh ama châta achhi khao nahta pangiasa thai khao va na.

              He nah dyhthôh buana hawhpa pyly châ ta, a sânona liata  Beiryutonô buana chhao he eima rie maniah a pathei kaw. Ano he eima khih liata â vaw paih tawhta vaw rei ha ta, khati kô tlyma pahno khao leipa na ta, paw pakha a vaw paih hrapa heta ei lahpinô na a châ tahpa ta a hnohta pa ysa haw ta. Atlia ta lia khata chapaw pakha eima khih liata a vaw paih heihpa chata Beiryutonô cha ei lahpinô mâh a châ tâh tahpa ta a o lâ a chhi ha awpa a chhuah heih ta, Beiryutopaw nata thata ama bua heih. He hawhpa hmo pathaih leipa he eima khitlâh thata maniah ama pabuapa ta pahno na ta, a pei ngaita kaw.

              Rei awpa hluhpi hryta hmo hropa eima buana y heihpa a sâthôhna cha he he a châ. Eima khih lâta a vaw paihpa maih he chanô hra khiah, chapaw hra khiah eima pangiasapa nata hnabeiseihpa, ama thâtih ama reipa hawhta vaw châ tlâ tiarâh leipa ei ta, eima hnabei maniah ama pady kaw sai cha maw !! Chanô chhaota chyhsa reih thei kawpa, chyhsa thâtih achiavo hoh kawpa, hohiah kawpa nata siatlôh leipa ta a pasiasa kawpa sai vaw châ ei ta. Chapawnah chhao chyhsa pathichhie kawpa, palôhru pualei kawpa, paru ahmâhpa, chhorupa nata haih thai kawpa sai ama châ heih bao. Eima khih tlâh hro thata maniah ama parao. He tawhta la ahyrai eima khih lâ a vaw paih awpa maih cha ama hro amâ sohsi kaw awpa a byuh aw. Tawhta la he hleikhô ta…..

              Eipâ…. Eipâ… tahpa ta hâtinah ta na vaw hria tlalô ei ta, ama awsaopa reikah hluhpa pyu chata a vaw hra na ta. Ei vaw pachâpasiapa cha nochhôh mâ buakha ei vaw sapa kha a vaw châ. Satlia Sawma ( 27th November 2020 tawhta cha Puhpa title a hnei ha bâ aw) châbie pahâh kawpa ta ei rei haino kha ei mo na vaw kupa châ ngyu ta, khati khata ma ei vaw mô ha ei pahno pha khao rai leipa kha a châ. Hâtinah nata ama nô cha a vaw dipa ta ochhôh lia ypa ta, bie reih ngâ kaw hra ei sala, kha ei mâ lâta chyhsa pakha ta Bôhzyu khih buana thâtih eina chhopa kha he hawhta pachâpazi na ta, keima pahnona tawhta châ leipa ta, a chhopasiana ahy tlyma tawhta a daopa hawhta ei pahno. Cha hleikhô ta, Tawhta la, he hleikhô ta … tahpa deita reih hmâ ta ei kaw hra thlâhpa kha kaokha lâta ei palôh na y pâ kaw. A chhopasiana ei dao dâh cha he hawhta a  châ :

              Kô 1 chhôh  thobuh ry liata Bôhzyu khih lâta apaihpazy ( Athipazy ) ta pahrâna o châta ama hmâ tyhpa kha - Pahrâna o hnei leipa vâta ama viavi tyhpa reina kha vaw châ ta, kô 1 tawhta pahrâna o ama vaw hnei ha tyhpa kha – Chhôhkhazy ta thlâlô kô 1 a sie tawhta ama vaw bô ha tyhpa vâta, kha kha ama châta cha pahrâna o asapa eima châzie chhopasiana hawhta ei dao.

Nôpi-nôvah likah liata buana eima paw nata eima nô (lahpinô nata lahvapa)  tahpa ta achhuna vâta buana a ypa kha atlô tlai awpa raina a châ. Achhâpa cha Paw pakha ta a lahpinô cha a thi hapa vâta lahpinô hropa hnei ta. A lahpinô thi tuapa khata lahpinô thiehpa ama paw ta ahnei hapa kha pahno leipa ta, athihpa khih liata cha ama paw sai kha a vaw rohpady tyh. Lahpinô panona chhao cha vâdua chhih kawpa ta vaw thi heih hra ta, ama paw sai kha a pachâ thlâh ha tyh hra. A chhâna liata cha pawhrâh chaipa a thi nahta a thihpa khih liata lahpinô pano ta ama vaw hâ tahna a châ. A lahpinôzy cha a bua lei thei awpa châ veih ei. Cha hawh pyly ta chanô nah vahpazy vâdua vâta vahpa hropa ahnei ha heihpazy chhao athihpa khih liata cha vahpa pano ta ama vaw hâ aw tahna a châ hra. Bua awpa cha ama rai a châ ha tlai. Chavâta hro liata ngâchhih kawpa ta lahpinô-nah vahpa pakha hnei thlâhpa he Bôhzyu khih lia buana khôkhâhna a châ.

Chanô chhao chapaw chhao – chyhsa pha leipa sai ama khih liata ama y thlâhpa; âmo ta cha chyhsa phapa hawh sai ta amâ vaw hnabeiseihna chhâpa cha athihpa ri kiana liata biereihtuhpa ahyrai ta athipa kha  chyhsa phapa, nônaipa, areisipa, ngâchhihpa, khitlâh châta apiepasa kawpa hawh saita ama rei tyhpa vâta a châ. DD(K) Mizoram channel liata Yrupa Chhôhkhazy  tahpa liata  athipazy atheithlâhna, ama thi tawhta kô 1 tlohna liata hlazy amâ vaw tly daihti liata biehmia ta ama rei tyhpa cha kha chyhsa a thipa kha eima rei chiehpa hawhta seina a hnei leipa, chyhsa phapa sai ama châ tyhpa vâta a vaw châ.

Achâ tlai na…. Hro he pahnothai awpa chhao vaw châ tlai vei. Eima nohto hro liata hmo tlôpa nata eimâ tyh haipa châ tlôh ta e. Pachiatuhpa Abeipa Khazohpa ryureina daihti liata maniah a pasiapa khai aw nahta hnabeiseih sih la, tahmâ cha a châna hawhta sie lymâ thlâh tua rai sa…

( Eima chi nata pho, reih pabohsana nata palaiseihsana châta phôhpa, phichhyhpa, pachâna eima ropa liata chyhsanô nata chyhsapaw moh he phichhyhpa châ ta, pachâleina lâta la tlâ lei awpa ta eimâ haw chyu ei )

 

 

 

 

 

 

CLEAN SIAHA CHA

PADUAPA A CHÂ HAW.

 

~ Thylua Hlychho,

ECM Vaih, Siaha.

Biehmia : Kô 2020 he kô peimawh kawpa, kô anano kawpa, kô ngiatlâh châpa, Corona virus hri tlô kô, chyhsa hluhpi thi kô, khizaw liata sawhkhâ to ta amâ tymâ kô a châ. Khizaw liata hmotlôpazy he azohna lâta eima pachâ khiahta la hupo achhih ta, nôpo pachârôhna meihdo ta miahkhu ta, akhaihna lâ tawhta eima pachâ khiahta la Khazohpa ta khizaw molei puanazy he a vaw pasipathaipa a châ. He kô liata hmotlôpazy ta hmothiehpa thata maniah pachu ta, a via pachaipa ta asithaina kyh liata pachuna thata eima dao, he he khizaw ta â ngiah kawpa a châ. Khizaw liata hmotlôpazy yzie tawhna heta pathaihna nata asithaina he eima pachâ peimawh awpa a byuh hmeiseih. Chavâta Siaha khihpi pasipathai awpa ta târi 20.10.2020 nohta “CLEAN SIAH” tahpa ta Py he paduapa a châ.

 

1.   Paduana chhâpa :  He py paduana chhâ chaipa cha Siaha khihpi pasipathai awpa he a châ. Siaha khih he pathaisa la, Siaha khih cha â vaw sithai kaw khiahta la a chhôh liata pahrâpa chyhsazy cha ama hnatlâ vaw pha aw ta, ama tha vaw tlô aw ta, ama hro chhao a vaw pahsi via aw. Sawtei nawhtei pha aw ta, maluh chhao eima pôh aw. Cha dei châ vei, Clean Siaha py paduana chhâpa cha Mizoram liata District Capital asithai chaipa châ eimâ chhuah aw. He he ataopasuana phapa nata khochhih kawpa a châ. Eima khihpi, Siaha cha pathaisa la, â vaw sithai kaw khiata la chyhsa to ta ngiaryhchhih kawpa ta y aw ei ta, khichhaizy chhao ta aly aw ei ta, eima châta byhnâ ama vaw châ ha aw.

 

2.   Member châ theina : Siaha khih liata  a pahrâpa ahyrai ta Clean Siaha py liata member ama châ thei aw. Kô 20 chôlâ maih cha Senior member tahpa châ aw ei ta, membership fee kô 1 châta Rs.100/- ama pie aw. Kô 20 ry lâ maih cha Junior member tahpa châ aw ei ta, membership fee pie byuh aw vei. Siaha khih liata a ypa eima tahpa heta â ipa ta a ypa tahna ngâlâh châ leipa ta, buakha a vaw ypazy chhao a pahly khai aw. Clean Siaha py liata a pahâhpazy cha member châta aly kawpa ta apyh lymâpa ama châ aw. Thatlô kawpa ta Siaha khihpi eima pasipathai thei n’awpa ta member hluhpi châ thei eisih la eima khoh. Chavâta hmopha tao awpa py liana heta member nama vaw châ lymâ awpa ta chyhsa to hruapa nama châ.

 

3.   Clean Siaha hmahla n’awpa : Sawhkhâ nata NGO zy hrialâhpa ta Siaha khihpi cha pasipathai awpa a châ. Siaha khihpi cha anao viapa ta pasipathaipa a châ thei n’awpa ta a hmiatua chai ta khiliah lâpi nata tihrylona (Side-drain) a pha awpa abyuh. Lâpi nata tihrylona cha a raopa a y khiata la biehneituhpazy hnohta thlai tlôkhei ta, a chatliena lâta taopathi tyh awpa a châ. Sawhkhâ lâ tawhta ryhpaohleina daihti liata Clean Siahâa ta fund raising taopa ta hmahla awpa a châ. Khiliah lâpizy pha sa la, tihrylonazy a pha khiata la Siaha khihpi cha anao kawpa ta eima pasipathai thei thlâh ha aw. Cha dei châ vei, sawhkhâ râh, office & a compound nata private compound zy chhao pasipathai awpa ta hmahla awpa a châ. Siaha khihpi area chhôh liata saimakao nataTikhaoh hnawhzy chhao pasipathai lymâ ta, su ngiaryh chhih kawpa ta tao khai awpa a châ. Sawhkhâ ta pathaihna kyh liata chhihthana a taopazy zipa ta hmahla pazi awpa a châ. Odyh / chhôhto ta eimâ ngiah kawpa cha a puapa / hnaihny a chatliepa nata thatlô viapa ta thy awpa he a châ. He chhao he sawhkhâ nata zawpi hriaparaona a pha khiata la thatlô viapa ta hnaihny cha eima thy thei thlâh ha aw.  

 

Conclusion : Khazohpa ta chyhsa hnohta byhnâ maniah a piepa miano y ta, miakhana cha Pachhana châ ta, asaipa ta maniah a piepa a châ. Mianona cha pathaihna / asithaina he châ ta, keimo ta eima hriapapua awpa a châ. Pastor rai tawhta ei vaw pension nota (2019)ei palôh liata a y kawpa cha Siaha khihpi pasipathai awpa he a châ. “Abeipa ta a paryhsa khiata la Siaha khihpi cha eima pasipathai aw” tahpa ta Khazohpa hnohta eikhazie tlyma thlah vaw chhâ na ta, Abeipa ta paryhsa ta Clean Siaha cha paduapa a vaw châ haw. Keimo nata mo hropazy châta byhnâ eima châ thei n’awpa ta Siaha khihpi cha pasipathai ei suh vy. Siaha khihpi a vaw pathaih khiata la, eima râh nata pho cha a nohâh vaw y aw ta, Khazohpa eima palyupalihpa a vaw châ aw.

 

 

 

 

BEINÔ CHAVAH (KALADAN)

 

~ K. Pari

 

              BEINÔ chavah he Laiva Tipo tawhta avaw lohpa châ ta, chavâta ‘Laiva Chavah’ tahpa châ ta, Laiva Tipo tawhta Chhôchô khih kiah liata za loh ta, Chhôchô mo ta he chavah ti he ti thaina châta ama hmâ tawhta ‘Chhôchô Tikhaoh’ tahpa vaw châ heih ta, Chhôchô tikhaoh tawhta za loh lymâ ta, Hiakha nata Thlâtlâh likawh liata za loh ta, he tawhta ‘Timo’ (liah reih ta ‘Timit’) ama bi heih.

                             Cha tawhta Saitha râh Sôkhao khihzy chapia ta, he tawhta cha Beinô tahpa a châ heih. Myanmar Marapa râh Lytu khih Hnaro nata Hraipi likawh a zâ ngia ta, ‘Beinô’ tahpa he ‘Abeinô’ tahna a châ. Vâro a za lo tawhta Myanmar lai râh, Thau khih tawhta ‘Tipi’ tah ei ta, Mawrâh a zâ ngia heih ta, maw lâ buakha a lo tawhta chho lâta pakopa ta a lo heihpa vâta ‘Chhimtuipui’ tah heih ei ta, India Lai râh nata India Marapa râh-rina châta a likawh liata loh ta, vâro a lo tawhta Salyu chavah ta â pahly heih.  Burma Rakhai râh â ngia tawhta ‘Kaladan’ ama tah heih. Rakhai nahta viahpa he ‘Kala’ tah ei ta, ‘dan’ he ‘pakhâ’ tahna a châ. He Beinô chavah heta viah nah ama râh (Rakhai râh) ama ngia awpa a pakhâpa vâta ‘Viahpa a pakhâpa’ ‘Kaladan’ tahpa a châ tahpa ta Sittwe liata MEC Pastor Rakhai ta eina chho. 

Ahnawh bana nata a za lo laihna dâh

              Laivâ Tipo he Beinô hnawh bana a châ. He Tipo he Hiakha nata Fala khih likawh ta a ypa, Chhôchô khih luhchô, Laikua tlâh Ft 8000 hlei asâhpa by liata ti â opa a châ. He Tipo tawhta a zâ lohpa a châpa vâta Laiva chavah ama tah. Cha tawhta Chhôchô khih mo ta he chavah he tikhaoh châta hmâh ei ta, chavâta ‘Chhôchô tikhaoh’ tahpa châ heih ta, cha tawhta chho lâta za loh ta, Hiakha nata Thlâtlâh likawh, Hiakha chadiepa lâta za loh ta, cha hawhna chata chho lâta za loh lymâ ta, Saitha nata Sôkhao khihzy chapiapa ta Lytu Marapa râh Hnaro khih â zâ ngia.

              Cha tawhta notla lâ loh pazao ta, Marapa khih hluhpi chapia ta, Ngiaphia (Myanmar) nata Chapi (India) likawh ta loh ta, Chin State (Myanmar) nata Mizoram likawh chho lâ tawhta Maw lâta a loh pathao heih. Cha cha Myanmar nata Mawrâh â rina a châ pâ. Maw lâta a lo chhâna liata Tia-ao chavah ta maw lâ tawhta a zâ pahlyh ta, cha tawhta Notla lâ a pahko ha. Notla lâ buakha loh ta, Muallianpui khih tawhta chho lâta pahko heih ta, Thiahra, Tisôpi, Kaochao khihzy chapia lymâ ta, Saikao khithieh nata Sawku Khohtôna likawh liata loh lymâ heih ta, Laty khithieh nata Lairâh likawh liata loh heih ta, Lômasu mahthi tawhta Salyutlana Khumi (Matu) râh, Kaletwa (Tura) nata Paletwa (Phila khih nata Rakhine (Arakan) râh Kyanktaw khihzy chapia laih ta, Myanmar Rakhine State khihpi Sittwe (Akyab) khih liata Bay of Bengal Tilaipi â pahlyh.

              He chavah he Miles 600 rachhôh seihpa châ ta, Bay of Bengal â pahlyhna rachhôh he  Miles 6 rachhôh ta akawhpa hawhta reipa a châ (Marapa ra Gio-Gra-Fi Châbu, A geography of the Land of the Marapa (Lakher or Shendoo) Tribesmen of Further India by RA Lorrain, 1940).

              Beinô chavah he Marapa saw Notla nata Nochhi Marazy ta eima vaw phahnaikhei ngâsâ. He chavah heta byhnâ hluhpi miah pie ta, Marapa sawzy ta cha eima pasô kaw awpa a châ. Â boh thein’awpa chhao eima tlua awpa a byuh kaw, a kiah chavei chachâh thokô-rihkô pabohsa sih la, a chavah chhôh liata Jeletine thypa nata Dynamo pachiepazy heta Nga taw thata thie ta, mylâ hânoh keimo châ pyly ta rairuna miah pie thei awpa a châ. Khazohpa ta eima nie awpa nata eima nietluana awpa ta miah apiepa he apôhna zie ta eima mohôh thai awpa a byuh kaw. Chata leipa ta tichhôh liata hmohrohneipa chi to, Abeipa ta chyhsapa châta miah A sopa he pamuana zie ta eima tao khiata la eima kyna tlao a châ lymâ aw. Ataotuhpa palôh chhao eima pasasa hra aw.

              He chavah he Marapa râh chhôh liata cha chavah lai chaipa nata seih chaipa, moh ahnei hluh chaipa a châ. A chhôh liata Nga, Cha-ia, Cha-u, Iakâh, Zyusy etc. zydua he Marapa sawzy châta byhnâ miah achâpa sai ama châ. Râh hropa thâtih cha reih lei p’aw sih la, Mara râh ôna chhôh ngâlâh eima reih aw. Nochhi Mara khihzy nata Notla Mara khih haosâ nata heisâ ta he chavah kiah liana heta Leipalie nata Liaryh tao thei n’awpa by hluhpi chhao y ta, cha hawhna pyly ta O sa n’awpa Leisadi phapa chhao a y hôlô.

              Peter Richard ta Beinô kiah liata leisadi nata alôzy cha, “He zydua he phusâ sai a vaw châ ha aw”, a tahpa kha Concrete Building-zy eima pahno hlâ naihta a pachâ n’awpa rai pahno ma pi, khahlâ ta a vaw saichhieliena (vision) kha a hmeiseihpa a vaw tlô khai ha. Ano ta cha Kaochao tlana tawhta Akyab–Calcutta Balyh ta a siepahlie n’awpa dâh chhao kô 1960, kô 50 a khô hapa liata a vaw saichhielie khai hapa a châ.

              Kaladan Navigation Scheme: Plan and Proposal Of 1959 cha Peter ta a roh. He Plan nata Proposal he Assam Chief Minister B.P. Chaliha hnohta pangia ta, he a Plan he apyhpa a vaw châ haw. Kô 1960-pa liata The Pawi-Lakher Region Overland And Navigation Transportation, Co-Operative Limited (PLRONTCLTD) padua ta, ano he Executive Director tuachaipa a vaw châ. Assam sawkhâ ta Balyh Engine nata Jeep a present ei. Beinô Hleidy taihta a vaw Plan khai hapa kha a châ.

              Puhpa Z. Sialua, Puhpa T. Hraili, Pihnô L. Ngôpy zy he Puhpa Peter Richard (Pity) hnohta rai avaw hria tyhpazy ama châ. Amâ chhuah chaipa cha Beinô hmâh phahnai ta, Maraland he sôhdaona supipa ta tao awpa he a châ. Puhpa S. Pailei (Ex-CEM MADC) he Balyh Engine Supply-tuhpa hawhta ama reipa vâta ano pakah tawhta thâtih achu’pa ei byuh kaw tyh. Chavâta, Puhpa S.Pailei  he ano pakah cheingei tawhta thâtih pahno awpa ei khopa vâta târi no 10/8/2015 zâlâ dawh 4:30 liata kaw charei na ta, thâtihzy hiahri na ta, eina chhona dâh ta cha, “Peter Richard he achhuahna ru kawpa hnei ta, Motor ta hmophaopa hlâta cha Balyh ta phaopa he a mâ nao via ta, â thôh via hra. Chavâta zawpi vâtlâh châta hmo rainao viapa nata athôh viana a pachâpa vâta he Policy ‘River transport is cheaper than other transports’ he hlaopatlo’pa khâchâ â chhuah ha”. Puhpa S. Pailei eina chhona zie ta ano cha ama hnohta raihriapa châ leipa ta, Balyh Engine deikua Rangoon tawhta a za phaopa thâtih eina chho. A rei lymâna liata Puhpa Peter Richard ta he hmahlana he kô 1960 tawhta vaw pachhuahpanoh pathao ta, Marapa râh he Motor lâpi thlai ta a tlô lei awpa vâta Beinô Chavah (Kaladan river) he Darzokai nata Ka-ao tlana likawh ta Balyh sie theina awpa ta a pathaopa a châ.

              Ano mopakha hneina sôh ta â pha leipa vâta Co-operative System ta siekhei awpa a chhuah ta, ‘P.L Regional Inland Water Transport Co-operative Society’ tahpa ta Assam sawkhâ liata â Registered. Balyh sie thei leina zydua alô papa ta Out-boat Engine hmâpa ta sie thei awpa ta Assam sawkhâ a tlôkhei. Assam sawhkhâ ta Inland Water Transport Department tawhta Junior Engineer pakha nata Mohurer vaw tuah ta, Darzokai tawhta Kaochao chavah tlana taihta Suvey khai hapa a châ. Mohurer cha Puhpa M. Châma, Zyhno khihpa a châ.

              Outboat Engine he 20 H.P châ sala tahpa Puhpa P. Richard khona dâh a châ. Puhpa Matlo, M.P Myanmar hnohta vaw pachâkhei awpa ta chho ta, Puhpa Matlo ta ano (S.Pailei) a chho pachhuah heih. Chavâta, America taopa 20 HP Johnson Outboat Engine cha Rangoon tawhta kaw phaohpa ta, Akyab lâ zawtheina ta phaoh ta, Akyab tawhta Phila (Paletwa) taihta Balyh ta kaw phao heih ta, Lôdaw tawhta Balyh (dug-out boat) ta â khykhei heih. Balyh sie thei leina lôsiarô nata tihra ru viana lia maihta thotlai pakhâhpa ta Balyh cha chaori ta amâ daophi laih. Lôdaw tawhta Ka-ao tlana cha noh pali nata zâ thôh ama ryu. A reina zieta, “A noh noh-y Balyh ta eima siepa cha zâlâ ta eimâ thaona su eima hmô thei thlâh ha”, tah ta, pahneichhi â chhih kaw. Amâ chhuahna a ru ngâsâ. Ka-ao tlana tawhta Darzokai tilâpi he kheihawhpa su liata ma cha Engine hmâh ei ta, a hluh via cha hmâ thai’pa châ vei.

              Darzo lâkia liata Balyhzy cha amohôhtuh penawh chhaota siesai ei ta, Aizawl lâ ama sie. Aizawl tawhta meitipa tin 50 nata alôh zy, Atta, Chini, Sahbaw zy ama vaw phaopa cha Darzokai tawhta Ka-aotlana Moudville taihta tlôkheipa a châ. Fungkâh tlana liata Balyh sâkha cha ti liata apamôh ha ta, ama hmophaopa chini nata alôhzy cha phie a zao khai. Petrol, Sabaw nata Atta cha apho ta, ti liata tla thei vei, tahpata a reih.

 

              Beinô chavah achhihpa ta Balyh siena tao awpa he rairu kaw ta, aphahnaina nata â thôh viana cha thlai hmâh khoh tlôh ta, chavâta Puhpa P. Richard chata Silchar nata Bairabi likawh Tlawng chavah he hmâ phahnai’pa achhuahpa ta Silchar liata Balyh pataosa ta, ei khazie tlymâ cha a sie hmâ ha hra.

              He Balyh a pataosapa he a nothlahpa tao ta, Mumbai liata Marine Engineer taopa nahta phie â lyu. Puhpa P. Richard taopa he Inches sâno (2) ta a chyu via. He Balyh he lai kaw ta, Quintal 40 taihta phao thei awpa ta taopa a châ. Mawrâh khihpi Aizawl liata Office taihta hneipa ta raihria ta, baotuhpa nata viasa phapa chhao a hnei hluh kaw. Tahmâ ta Chief Minister a châ ngâhaipazy nata Vankhama zy, Pachhunga Aizawl hneirôhpa nata Laldenga zy chhao ano pahnopa nata viasa phapa sai ama châ. Puhpa Lal Thanhawla CM chata a tlia 2015 ta a kaw tly nota Peter Richard sawchapawpa Ernest Richard (Paw Ni) hnohta, “Na paw Balyh a patlô daihmâ nota Silchar lâ nâ chhi ta, ei na pahmô”, tahpa ta a chho.

              Kô 1966 Maw râh buana vâta he a Project he hria pazao thei khao leipa ta a chhaichhi hiahbâh zydua cha Bairabi liata siesaipa ta pachâ pazi thei khao vei. Anopa chhao cha chhôhpasana vâta Aizawl liata kô 1967, Thlarâh 24 noh ta â pahâ haw. He a hmochhuahna he a paty paty ta hria laih awpa a chhuah ta, Beinô Project chhao cha liahsa pachhuahpanoh khai ha ei ta, ama Junior Engineer kha lathli lâ buana bahta a hneipa vâta Plan nata Estimate chhao cha vaw pahlei ha ta, â thaona tawhta hmahla pathi heihpa a byuhpa vâta thlai pazao thei leipa ta y ta, zawpi kyhpachâpa ta su hrolâ tlao a pathaopatô heihpa a châ. Bairabi nata Silchar likawh buakha amâ hlaihlâpa chhao cha zawpi vâro a pathlâ pazi ei. Puhpa Peter Richard he vaw hroh parei via sala Marapa sawzy châta hmo rônahpa hluhpi miah a taopa nahta pangiasa â chhih.

              Beinô chavah he Central sawkhâ rai, State sawkhâ chhao rai châ sala hmâh phahnai’pa amâ chhuah kaw. Cha zawhzi ta Mara sawzy chhaota eimâ pachhuahpanoh thai khiata la byhnâ eima to via lymâ heih aw. KMTTP (Kaladan Multi-Model Transit Transport Project) he Look East Policy pipatloh n’awpa ta Project hmahla ngâhaipa châ ta, Ministry of External Affairs ta Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) cha Project Development Consultant (PDC) châta rao ta, Main Contractor châta M/S Essar Projects India Limited, Mumbai rao ta, amâ paryhpa a châ. He Agreement he 2010-pa liata amâ Signed. Phusâ cha Crores 342 (34,200 lakhs) a châ.

 

He rai ta â chakaihpa cha-

              1) Sittwe tawhta Paletwa Beinô chavah achhihpa ta Inland Water Transport, a likawh km 158 chhôh he Balyh pha kawpa ta a sie thei n’awpa ta a byuhna hawhta hmahla aw 2) Sittwe liata Port (Balyh pahâna) nata Inland Water Transport Terminal nata Godown sana rai.

              3)  Paletwa liata Terminal nata Godown chhao Cargo Balyh hmophaopa sona châta ama sa hra.

              KMTTP Project Director reina zieta cha 2015 kô chhâna lâta patlô thei awpa hawhta rei ta, cha tawhta 2016 kô thaona liata India sawkhâ lâ ama hlâ thei awpa hawhta a reih. Balyh laipa nata a chyhpa pahâ n’awpazy tao khai ha ei ta, a rônah ngâsa. A ry liata palâsapa hawhta he KMTTP ta a sie n’awpa zie â chhuahna cha a châ.

 

Likawh                                           Siena zie                          Ahlana zie   

(1)   Kolkata to Sittwe

Port in Myanmar                         Shipping                          539 km

 

 (2)   Sittwe to Paletwa               Inland Water

(River Kaladan)                           Transport                       158 km   

      

(3)   Paletwa to Indo-

Myanmar Border                        Road                           110 km

(in Myanmar)

 

(4)   Border to NH. 54

(Lawngtlai)                                   Road                                 100 km

In India

                                                             

              Balyh laipa he nochhi râh nano nanopa tawhta hmo phaohpa ta vaw tlô aw ta, he ama Balyh laipa he Ton hluhpi phaoh theipa châ ta, Balyh laipa hluhpi ahlaihlâ awpa a châ. A chyhpa (Vessel) Ton 300 (Quintal 3000) aphaoh theipa he eikha ta sâcharu (6) Inland Waterways, Beinô achhihpa ta Paletwa (Phila) ama kaw tlô awpa a châ. He Balyh heta eikha hmo ama tlôkheipa cha Quintal 18,000 a châ aw. He hmo so pakhy n’awpa chhao ama sa ngâhai.  Terminal nata Godown rai taihta Essar Company ta a sa awpa a châ, he he ama rai liata â hlao pâ khai hapa a châ.

              He tawhta cha Aizawl, Culcutta, Bangkok tahpa sievawna mâ ru kawpa y khao leip’aw ta, Balyh laipa ta Sittwe liata kaw phaoh ta, Beinô chavah achhihpa ta Balyh chyhpa ta Paletwa taihta kaw sie khai thei ta, Paletwa tawhta National Highway liata Motor laipa ta Zochachhuah- Lytai taihta a kaw tlô thei ha aw. Chahawhna chata Paletwa–Kaletwa-Laki lâta Mawrâh sawkhâ chhao Motor lâpi laipa miah taopa awpa â chhuah. He he khizaw hawka vaw châ h’aw ta, ato he a vaw phaoh/tlô thei khai’pa a lyu kaw.

              Mara Historical Document thokhapazy lapakhy awpata kô 2014 November liata khy na ta, cha nota eima Mission su peimawhpa,  he liata hriatuhpazy châta thlah khâ eima chhâkhei tyhpa su peimawhpa nata ECM chhaota râh a hneina su tly awpa nata India ta a tao ngâhaipa Sittwe Port cha hmô awpa ei khohpa vâta Sittwe (Akyab) lâ zawtheina ta a zaw pi ta, dawh kha rachhôh eimâ zaw tawhta Sittwe Airport cha tlô pi ta, Yangoon liata MEC nôpawpazy ta eimâ zu awpa ama vaw chho chhielie hapa vâta Rev. Rakhai, Field Director nata a hrialâpazy ta Airport liata miah vaw dy ei ta, mo maniah hryta ama hmia eima hmôpa cha eima thlah a lôh ngâsâ. Eima Mission Field Quarter-zy cha ngiaryh achhih kaw ta, khi hawhpa su peimawhpa avaw châ lymâ awpa liata râh pha kawpa ama vaw hnei thlâh hapa cha eima chhôh a hmoh kaw. Quarter tawhta Balyh pahâna ama taopa lâ eimâ ngia thei n’awpa ta ama pasaina la awpa ta Project Director Quarter nata Office lâ ngai pi ta, amâ  vaw khaw hapa vâta Beinô nata Bay of Bengal â tyhna su mo awpa ta eima palâh lymâ ha.  Cha liana chata vâro eima daihtizy hmâh pi ta, he â tyhna su he vaw rônah kaw ta, a lai ngâsâ hra. Tilaipi hawh tlaita a rarôh-y ta, a lai hra.

              Cha tawhta a mylâpa ta Project Director Office lâ vawh heih pi ta, eimâ kei hmôpa cha miah a vaw ly-ua kaw ei ta, ama sia ngâsâ. Ama raihriapa eima mo khohpa thâtihzy chho pi ta, Port chhôh he dôh khai ha ei ta, ahy hmahta angia pasaih leipa ei ta, keimo cha India chyhsa eima châpa vâta ama raihria eima hmô awpa miah khokhei kaw hra ei ta, ama lakhuzy thlai miah pakhusa ei ta, ama Engineer ta miah â chhi lymâ. Ama raihriapa nata ama hmotaopazy miah chho laih ta, ama Port cha a seihna lâ Metres 500 châ ta, Inland Water Transport Balyh chyhpa â chahâ n’awpa he 54 metres ta seihpa châ ta, Port Balyh laipa achahâ n’awpa he 290 metres seihpa a châ. A Port chhôh liana heta IWT Office zy, Terminal nata Godown-zy sa ei ta, ama raihriatuhpa ama hluh ngâsâ.

              He Beinô tlana Bay of Bengal â pahlyna su he mokhaoh tlaita za hmô na ta, Beinô chavah a châ tahpa zo va na. Châhrasala Rev. Rakhai ta, “He he Beinô chhâna/tlana châ ta, hao lâta Bay of Bengal hao â kei pahlyh”, tahpa ta na chho ta, ei no a âh ngâsâ. Anodeikua a za lo laihna liata chavah hluhpi ta a vaw pahlyh hra ta, Bay of Bengal atlôna tlâ cha chavah lai kawpa a vaw châ ha. Bay of Bengal nata amâ tyhna dady liata Cement ta tlyphie hawhta kei dao ei ta, â tyhna ta cha pazaosapa ta a Point kei dy ta, cha tawhta eima kei moh hra, a rônah kaw.  Beinô tlana he Bay of Bengal hmiakô liata zakhei a chhih vei.

Look East Policy hmahlana liata a HEP 11 (Hydro Electrict Project) chhao he Electric Power thata miah pie awpa a châ thota Balyh siepahlie-pahlâna chhao a rai a panaosa hr’awpa a châ. A chhâpa cha ti ama pasa tyh awpa heta ti Level kha thata a kaw pasâh awpa a châ. He hmahlana heta hmahsiena tlôkheipa ta rai thata vaw pahy aw ta, byhnâ hluhpi vaw tlôkhei awpa a châ.

 

              Anodeikua eima palôh liata khâchâ eimâ vao awpa nata eima my lei awpa cha hmo phapa a tlô nota, hmo chhiepa chhao â hlao pâ ngiathia tahpa he eimâ thei thlâh ha awpa nata eimâ sohsi k’awpa a châ. Kao totie liata mo hropazy ta miah ama pho lymâ thei tahpa he pahnopa ta byhnâ dao tlâh châ awpa ta kao nano nanopa liata eimâ pachhuahpano’pa a peimawh kaw. A thâtih eima rei ngâhaipa pazao heih tua ei sih la. Beinô chavah he a hnaw â bana tawhta saopa ta a tlana taihta ei chhi papua lei tarawpa ta, a lona dâh angiapati thai awpa ta he chavah hnaw tawhta a tlana taihta a likawh he ei tly laih hrapa ta ei pahno. Ei chyhta nota Tlôsaih khih liata y na ta, eima yna cha khilie lâ, Saikao Tlyliah yna kiahta liata eima y. Tlyliah nochhi baih lâ y pi ta, notla baih lâ cha Tlyliah kâ lâ odyh 5 rachhôh â paziah hra. Notla baih lâ PWD lâpi Beinô lâ tawhta kaw sie ta, Saikao a kaw ngiahpa y ta, cha PWD lâpi liata hawka a zâ tyh awpa ta phei ta siena Tlyliah kiapâh o nata o likawh liata lâpi zupa a y. Tlyliah tawhta buakha phei ta zu pi ta, khih tlô chy hawka he eima za tlôpa a châ.

              He hawka tawhta Beinô he a zâ lâ pha kaw ta, a hi eima nâ vei kaw. He Beinô thâtih he rei khoh kaw tyh ei ta, a kiah liata phu khaih ha tyh ta, cha cha ‘Paripi ta a lôna khaipa alô chô liata soh ta, a lao a tlua’ tahpa ta miah ama chho tyh, eima chi ngâsâ tyh. Ti liata atlapa ama y nahta hawka tawh chhao hmahta moh ngâh khao ma pi. A tizy lai kaw ta, hroh hôlô ta, a hi nâ lei kaw pi ta, eima chi kaw. Eima chyhta no naihta chavah laipa chhao hmô beih leipa pi ta, a rarôh-y kawpa ta ei pahno. Tahmâ cha Khazohpa ngiachhiena vâta a chavah lona he a hnawh tawhta a tlana taihta ngiapati thei awpa ta ei tly haw. Ei ly kaw.

              Kô 2014 May thlapa liata Art & Culture, Department ta Research tao awpa ta Hiakha-Thlâtlâh eima tly nota Bible for Myanmar chakaona rai hriana ryhpaohpa nata Chauthia-Missionary lôbôna su moh hra awpa ta Rev. NC. Vabeilua nata Laisa T.Samari chhao amâ hlao hra, Zyhno lâta sie pi ta, Myamar râh liata khih ypa Hlômâ lâta chahlô laih pi ta, he daihti no heta Myanmar khih 30 hlei eima tly. Hlômâ tawhta Sabyh, Vâsaih, Dawlei Taikua tlô pi ta, he khih liata Awnanopa nôpawpa nata khihtlâh nôpawpazy chhaota Beinô lâ eima zu. 

              Pâkao su liata Hiakha Missionary nata Lakher Pioneer Missionaries amâ tyhna tly awpa ta zu pi ta, Beinô eima tla tawhta a tha lâ Motor pyly ta Tauhlai lôchei khihthieh kia n’awpa su Beinô kiah zy, alôh khaoh yna by zy arâ palâh laih pi ta, Missionary-zy amâ tyhna Beinô kiah eima tlô. He su liata vâro y pi ta, cha tawhta Pâkao-lih moh awpa ta atha lâ vâro eima za sao heih. He Pâkaolih liata vâro eima y tawhta a hnaw Phaphe by yna lâ kaw paliepa ta vâro kaw sao heih pi ta, Beinô kiah liata by pha kawpa cha kaw tlô pi ta, cha liata Beinô chavah ti cha Motor ta nochhi lâ eima kei tai. He by he Hacter 800-1000 rachhôh akawhpa châ ta, nohthlahpazy chhao eimâ la. Hraipi nata Hnaro likawh liata he Beinô chavah he eima tai heih.

Thlâtlâh tawhta Hiakha lâ sie pi ta, Hiakha tlô hlâ Km 50-pa rachhôh ta by kawh pâ kawpa y ta, “He he Beinô chavah hnaw ‘Timit’ cha a châ”, miah ama tah.  Hiakha tlô hlâta chavah kao by lai kawpa y ta, a ti lona kao deikua chyh kaw ta, ti chhao a chyh kaw hra. Cha su tawhta Bus tawhta chô pi ta, a kao ta hawhta a ypa vâta hleidy dao ei ta, cha hleidy liata nothlahpazy eimâ la. He su liana heta cha a chavah lona dâh chhao a thatlô leipa ta, chyh kaw ta, tihry he a lyu daihmâ. Hiakha tawhta a zâ lie pi ta, Thlâtlâh tawhta Thlualâm lâ sie pi ta, Thlualâm tawhta Hriangkhan, Thau, Bungtlâng lâta za palie pi ta, Tiau chavah ta Beinô â pahlyna Tihel tlô hlâta Saisichhuah liata Beinô cha tai pi ta, (India) lai râh  Pang khih kiahpâh eimâ vaw ngiah. Dawlei Taikua khih kiah liata za loh lymâpa, Chapi khih dady liata Tichhei yna za tly heih na ta, a kao cha vâro a tha lâ nata a hnaw lâ ei sai heih hra. Lôcheita (Myanmar) nata Siasi (India) likawh a lona rachhôh chhao vâro sao pi ta, Ngiaphiapi nata Meisakôtlâ eima tly nota Beinô chavah he eima tai heih hra.

              He daihti he Bible for Myanmar moh ta Bible rai awpa ta eima sie no a châ. Siata nata Ngalâ likawh a lona chhao a tha lâ nata a hnaw lâ varo ei sai heih. Art & Culture Department ta Siata liata Hmôchao khiry mo awpa ta eima sie no châ ta, he khih parohpa he ama khih ry lâ châ ta, cha khih rypa tawhta Khahrô ama baona tlâh kiah pi ta, cha tlâh cha padâ kaw ta, saina ryhpaoh kawpa, eima kâ chavei chachâh ta eima hmialâ khih nata tlâh alâpasia kawpa châ ta, eima ry lâ Beinô alohpa a tha nata a hnaw ta lyupih sâhrawh rairie taihta alâ theipa cha sai heih na ta, ei palôh â lie kaw. Cha tawhta Iana khih tawhta Beinô liata Vawri tlana  ‘Chyvâ lih’ moh awpa ta Motor ta Beinô kiah taihta dawh kha rachhôh a râ pi ta, Beinô kiah tawhta a tha lâ sao lymâ pi ta, KM 8 rachhôh phei ta eima sao tawhta Chyvâ lih eima tlô thei. He Chyvâ lih he thâtih ahnei kawpa vâta eima tlypa a châ. Chyvâ chavah ta Beinô â pahlyna lih he ‘Chyvâlih’ ama tahpa a châ.

              Cha tawhta, Lôbô tawhta Nara nata Kiathy amâ tuna su moh awpa ta Beinô chavah lâ Motor ta eimâ râ heih.  Chavah kiah tawhta a hnaw lâ Minute 20 rachhôh sao pi ta, amâ tuna lih nata amâ chariana Lôpanô liata ama hniezy eima kaw moh heihpa a châ. Daihti nano nanopa liata Beinô chavah nata Tiau chavah amâ tyhna rachhôh Bungtlang (Mynmar) nata Pang khih (India Lairam) likawh, Siasitlana (Saisichhuah) liata vaw tai heih pi ta, a tha nata a hnaw lâ vâro â sai thei heih. Hnathial tawhta Sangyu lâchhâh siepa ta Darzokai liata Beinô he Marboat ta eima tai heih.

              Cha tawhta Thiahra lâ Awnanopa atlypahlaopa ta eima sie nota mydi ta thyu na ta, tlâh lâ kiah na ta Beinô chavah a vaw lona dâh tlâh tawhta sai na ta, a tha lâ nata a hnaw lâ vâro a lâ thei ta, ei palôh â lie kaw. Thiahra–Tisôpi nata Amôbyu Vaihthieh (Zero) kiah khihzy chahryh laihpa ta Kaochao a lona dâhzy hmô chyupa châ ta, Kaochao tawhta Saikao khihthieh nata Laty Khihthieh nata Marapa râh nata Liapha, Lairâh likawh a za lonazy ei za hmô laih.

              Kô 2014 kô ta Lôdawh liata Saphao mo awpa ta sie pi ta, Lôdawh tawhta Beinô kiah taihta Motor ta sie pi ta, Beinô kiah tawhta Speed Boat ta Minute 40 rachhôh eimâ râ heih. A tha lâ nata a hnaw lâ vâro ei hmô thei heih. Lômasu khih tawhta chhao Azinô mo awpa ta eima sie nota, Lômasu tawhta Beinô kiah lâ Motor ta a râ pi ta, Minute 9 rachhôh Beinô tlô n’awpa ta hmâh pi ta, cha tawhta Speed Boat ta Minute 30 rachhôh a râ pi ta, vâro a lona dâh eima kaw hmô. Azinô tawh chhao dawh khophie a hnaw lâ Balyh ta Hruitezawl (Tido) tlô pi ta, cha tawhta vâro â lâ thei. Lôdawh khih â hnia kaw bâ. Motor ta Beinô kiah eima tlôna su tawhta a tha lâ Burma nata India râh-ri taihta zu pi ta, Myanmar râh liata nohthlapazy eimâ la.

 

 

 

 

 

LAILA nata PHONGIA

(Chariah ku tawhta ama pachha)

~ Laicho Nôtlia

 

                                                      

Hlâno tawhta Marapa râh cha khito khotalaipa (Independent) ta, abei eihpa hnei chyupa ta khih a vaw sa laih tyhpa châ ei ta. Ama phôhryhpa chhao lyurâhhripa achhypa he tlâ vaw châ ta. Liahnycheihpa chhao â papeisa leipa châ ei ta. He vâta hrâsie ta moluh lapa nata ama chariahpazy patu ta sei ta a hneipazy he nohhâh yna nata khi lâna hawhta tlao ama pachâ. Tlôsaih sawzy chhaota Khumi, sâ-ia thlâtlâhzy dei châ leipa ta ama kiapâh liata Bualpui tlâthlôh liata bei zy, Lungtian beizy chhaota a hmô thai beih veih ei.

              He hawhta khâ ama y thlâh hapa vâta, eikha cha, Lungtian beipa Dokulha ta a nawhta pano(2), Hausata nata Vantura cha Tlôsaih lâ tuah ei ta, khihsaw satliazy amâ chhi pâ. Ama siena chhâpa cha ‘Tlôsaih ta, Dokulha he reihpha â cheih awpa na a châ’, tahpa bie he a châ.

              Tlôsaih ta, Dokulha liata reihpha ama cheina awpa kyh a ypa ta ama pahno leipa vâta reihpha cha amâ haw khoh hra vei. Anodeikua cha hmiachhie ta ama kua awpa cha khoh hra leipa ei ta, Pala (Laphâh, Larie liata ama rei mâh leipa) he chhai ei ta ama pasiesa ha, khih ama tlôpa cha Dokulha cha a palôh tlâh leipa ta a nawhta Vantura nata khihsaw satliazy cha a tuah heih ei. Tlôsaih ta reihpha amâ chei n’awpa y vei tah ei ta, ama pasiesa ha heih. Vantura cha  a hiehâh ngâsâ ta lâpi kiah liata lyu â rie p’enawh Laila nata Phongia cha patu ei ta, amâ chhi ha.

              Laila nata Phongia ama patupa thâ ama theipa nahta Tlôsaih bei Thylai ta Tlôsaih pasaipha pasari(7) Meithei chhaota thlai a chadaisa ei, Vantura nata a khihsaw sahlao, Laila nata Phongia chhao cha chavah kiah amâ pahâna liata za pha ha ei ta, Tlôsaih pasaiphazy ta thlai ka ei ta, amâ râpai hmâ hapa vâta pakha hmahta ka sao veih ei. Vantura deikua cha â râ leipa vâta vâtlai (Mathipi) ta Vantura cha a chachâhna liata ka ta, thi vei. He nota Laila nata Phongia chhao cha â râ papua ei ta hlaotloh atah kawpa ta Tlôsaih khih cha amâ ngia khei ha.

              Vantura hmah phaohpa cha a pasa kawpa vâta sie thei khao leipa ta, a khihsaw â vaw chhi p’enawh ta khih tlôna taih amâ sy.

              Vantura thi dâh he a thi nota a ypa, S. Hutchinson, ‘An account of the Chitagong Hill Tracks’ rohtuhpa ta a reizie cha- “Vantura thi daihmâpa vâta ei patlâh thei awpa hawhta ama pachâpa vâta ochhôh lâ na pangiasa ei ta. Vantura thi daihmâpa cha meikô kiapâh siphiah liata a lahpinô byhchô liata a huapa ta â zia. Vantura kiapâh liana cha ei pahkhu paneih na ta, a ku cha ei patu, ochhôh cha chhôhkha nata khihsawzy ta ama bie thlâh ha. Palôhpasa ngâsâpa ta ama beipa thi awpa cha ama sai  thlâh ha. He no heta eikhapi ta a vaw chatho ta ei ku ta a zôh cha thlai nâ na ta, thi-hro â chhuh lichih a châ. A chachâhhna ama kana tawhta thi thata kaw zâ ta, Vantura cha ei bâh chô liata a chhâ pâ ha, a thipa thâtih ama vaw pahnopa ta nahta, ‘Vantura a thi haw, Vantura a thi haw’  tahpa ta khichhôh zydua pathâhsa ei ta. Khihsaw ta vâ lâ paheipa ta Meithei thlai thlai ama ka” tahpa ta a reih.

              He rakha tawh chhochhi cha Tlôsaih nata Dokulha pathla sahlao cha a hmiahaopa ta a iekhyh via lymâ ei ta. Châhrasala Kô 1924 liata Thylai sawchapawpa  châta Dokulha tunônô (Grand Daughter) cha lahpi châta kaw hiah ei ta. A chhâ chhâna liata cha bie a paryhpa ta a vaw hnei pâ ha ei ta, Chhôhkha tlao ama vaw châ haw. (Source : The Lakhers)

 

 

 

 

 

 

NO. MADC. 1/EDN/M&P/2019-

MARA AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT COUNCIL

SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

SIAHA.

Siaha, the 14thDecember, 2020

 

 

O F F I C E   O R D E R

 

 

                             Executive Member, Mara Autonomous District Council zy nahta Hon’ble Minister, School Education zy târi 02.12.2020 zâ ta amâ pakyhna tawhta Mawrâh Sawhkhâ liata bie eima tlôkheipa kyh liata hnabeiseihna lai kawpa hnei pi ta, chavâta Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan nahta ahrialâh lei awpa (non-cooperation) order vide conveyed under memo No.MADC.1/EDN/M&P/2019 on 10th August,2019 cha chalihsa (revoked) pa a châ.

                             Atahmâ tawhta cha Mara Autonomous District Council ry liata Elementary School zydua ta a pha kawpa ta Samagra Shiksha ahrialâh chyu awpa ta eimâ pahnosa.

 

 

 

Sd/- K. Vanlalliana

Senior Education Officer

Mara Autonomous District Council

Siaha

 

MEMO NO. MADC. 1/EDN/M&P/2019---      Siaha, the 14thDecember, 2020

Copy to:-          

P.S to Hon’ble Minister of School Education, Mizoram, Aizawl for kind information.

P.S/P.A to all Elected Office Holders for kind information

The Executive Secretary for kind information.

The State Project Director, Samagra, Directorate of School Education, Mizoram Aizawl for kind information.

The District Education Officer, Siaha for information.

All Headmasters of Middle and Primary Schools under MADC for information & necessary action.

Office Copy.

Guard file.

 

 

 

Senior Education Officer

Mara Autonomous District Council

Siaha

 

 

 

NO. MADC. 1/EDN/M&P/2019-

MARA AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT COUNCIL

SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

SIAHA.

Siaha, the 14thDecember, 2020

 

 

O F F I C E   O R D E R

 

 

                             In pursuance of a meeting between Hon’ble Minister of State, School Education Department, Government of Mizoram and Executive Members, Mara Autonomous District Council held a meeting in the evening of 02.12.2020 and with a high expectation from this end, an order issued vide Memo.No MADC.1/EDN/M&P/2019 dt 10th August,2019 is hereby revoked with immediate effect.

                             Hence forth, all Elementary Schools under Mara Autonomous District Council will work in close cooperation with the Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan.

 

 

Sd/- K. Vanlalliana

Senior Education Officer

Mara Autonomous District Council

Siaha

 

MEMO NO. MADC. 1/EDN/M&P/2019---      Siaha, the 14thDecember, 2020

Copy to:-          

P.S to Hon’ble Minister of School Education, Mizoram, Aizawl for kind information.

The State Project Director, Samagra, Directorate of School Education, Mizoram Aizawl for kind information.

The District Education Officer, Siaha for information.

All Headmasters of Middle and Primary Schools under MADC for information & necessary action.

Office Copy.

Guard file.

 

 

 

Senior Education Officer

Mara Autonomous District Council

Siaha

 

 

 

 

 

ASAIHDINÔ

~ Samuel Hnaihly

 

 

Chhôhso ta rohpady tyh na,

Khiahlôh rai za tlâh thei vei,

Hiahvâ sari chakhi leipa ma eima châ ha tly?

 Kheihtazie tymâna sai a y thlâh haw?

 

Na sâhmia ei hmô châhki ta,

Ei ngiapâna â huary tyh ta,

Ei kiapâh liata na y châhki ta,

Thlazohna meihthâhpi ta eina khu tyh.

 

Idâh sahdô liana khata,

Mahnô Ivy ma byhnâ cha awpa ha tly?

 He tlupo ta khoh nâ chhih thlâh hapa he.

Chhaohlei sapa heta la châ chhaih thei’vei. 

 

Kei he khâpa ma châ na ta,

He tlupo ta eina tlaichhai ha chi tly?

Ei sapa kyh he ma na pachâ ma?

Ei thaina sonazy he maw?

 

Kei O-pazu pachasapa tlai he kyhpachâ ei phuh ma?

Alynazy cha pie thei tlôh aw na va,

Ei tlohleina kaw na chô heta,

Chhâpalo lâh awpa eina khoh tlai chi ma?

 

Ei sapa he zaotla tlôh aw ta,

Ei thainazy chhao leidia tlôh aw,

Ei chhaohlei sapa he nâ tlyh thlâh pyly aw ma?

Leipawpi ngiapa hawhta lo tlôh hr’aw.

 

Amaihdinô zydua hry liata,

Nâ la Kei châ ASAIHDINÔ châ chi ta,

Nâ châ ti thei lei awpa ta ei rohpady nahta la,

Palôh hi â chaphiechadawh khai ha tyh.

 

Khâpa rai vaw tlôh hra sa la,

Kyh ei cha pachâ tahpa a vaw thei la,

Nâma hlâta Kristâ ei vaw tlyh hapa chhaota,

Na vaw maochhie kha y.

 

Khizaw phasana zydua hlâta,

Kalvari liata kei châ pasa ataotuhpa hih,

Ei thlahpa ta ngiahbâh via ha tlôh,

Nâ ngiathai mah y ASAIHDINÔ.

 

Noh nah daihti sie lymâ,

Lôhhro phaoh thei pyly va na,

Ei cha pachâ via rili tyh,

Ei thlahpa hrona hlâta chhao hih.

 

Pachârôhpa ta y’pa cha pasaih va na,

 Sanawhzy lôh a du leipa ta,

Sanawhzy ta na thlua hra sa la,

 Bâlia hawhta a cha-ao lai la vâ pi e.

 

Na hnohta ei y châhki,

Na chhithaizie ei pahno rili,

Laihlâzy hry liata nâ ngia raolao,

 Ei khizaw he na vaw châ tlai na.

 

Khizaw phasanazy cha a lo,

 Rairuna thlipi vaw pathli heih,

Ei chhôhso cha pazao pakei,

Kristâ chhao pado thei khao va na.

 

Na châta ei pienazy kha,

 Hrao leipa dei a châ thlâh h’aw mâ?

Movi hlâta kei thyhnypa ta,

Molah khydi ma nâ tly via h’aw mâ?

 

A pha baona ASAIHDINÔ,

Nâ ly n’awpa a châ khiah,

Kei la nawhnai tu ha bao naihta, 

Tuhpi kalinô hawh viavi lai la vâ na.

 

Hnabeidypa ta ei y heih,

Thina lâthlôh liata ma ei leilô aw tly i?

Ei lynazy kha chana dei vaw châ,

Lômaoh khiahlô tlâhna noh rai y khao vei.

 

Ahy thai leipa hmah châ vei?

Kei nawhnai thai leipa dei a châ.

Rona chôta, raithlih chhao ta,

Ei kua heih aw, Bei Zisu hnoh.

 

 Hy Bei Zisu nâ ngiahthai mah y.

 Ei chitupa he la ei â awpa rai na châ,

 Cha viavi sai tyh hr’aw sa la,

 Rairuna liata na siesai beih va chi.

 

Kyh ei cha pachâ hy Bei Zisu,

Nâ ta kyh na pachâ tlôh chi.

Eina awna chhâpa hlao patloh awpa ta,

Ei hrona ei cha hlâ ha bâ.

 

 

              He hlaphôhpa he Mara chhivaw ei kho kawpa ASAIHSDINÔ hlâta ei tlyh ha viapa, Kalvari tlâh liata KEIMA châta pasana zydua a taotuhpa Abei Zisu Kristâ nata kyhpachâna vâta palôh keichheihpa zydua ei cha hlâ ei.

 

 “Hy ei hrona, khazia nâ khu thlâh haw?

Khazia ei chhôh liata nâ tymâ tly?

 Khazohpa hnabeiseih teh,

ano cha ei reithei heih aw na,

Na baotuhpa nata ei Khazohpa cha. (Hlazy 42:5 )

 

 

 

 

 

SATLIA HÂRAPA NATA

LAIHSA AKHOH KAWPA PHÔH

~ M. Nyuso

            Zâkhano he khih miakha liana heta laihsa hmihpha kawpa he y ta, ama khih liata satlia hârapa pakha nah heta kyh a pachâ kaw ei ta. A satliapa cha nohchareih ta lyu lâ sie tyh ta. Lyu lâ tawhta a vaw tlô nahta thlaita a ngai asi ta, pati zy nie para ta â chhuah khai pataw nahta a laihsapa cha va charei tyh ta. A laihsapa nô chata satliapa cha a hao kaw ta, a sawchanô hnoh chata, “Zâ a rei ha, amô bâ tyh”, tah tyh ta, a satliapa cha a no he za kaw tyh ta. Châhrasala, a laihsapa chata, “A papeisa rai kha, mylâ chhao vaw charei heih mah y. Na hmi ei cha hmô lei nahta la ei palôh na a lie thei tu ha tyh”, vaw tah ha tyh ta. A satliapa cha o lâ a di ha ta.

            A mylâpa cha satliapa cha lyu lâ sie heih ta. A sie chhôh chata laihsapa nô chata a sawchanô hnoh chata, “Lyu lâ va sie la, reivâh hluh tlôh ta, na sie vei khiata la â su thai vei”, tah ta. A sawchanô chata, “Keima deita cha ei chi kaw dia maw ei nâ”, tah ta. A nô chata, “Chi’pa khâpa hmahta y tlâ vei, lyupa nah chhao amâ rie hôlô hra cha ma”, tahpa ta pasiesa raruah ha ta, chatanachata chi kawna chôta laihsapa cha lyu lâ sie ha ta. Satliapa cha lyu lâ tawhta vaw tlô ta, patizy a nie khai pataw nah chata laihsanô hmi hmô a ngiahtiah lei kawna chôta charei awpa ta thlai pua ha heih ta. Chakoh liata a tyuh ta, laihsapa nô ta bie a chho vâ, a khopanô hra cha hmô tlôh vâ a tahpa vâta ngâh lei kawna chôta, “Ei pihnô, nama laihsanô zaw khataih lâ e a vawh haw?”, tahpa ta hiahri ta. A laihsapa nô chata, “Reivâh hluh tu ha ta, zâlâ kha lyu lâ ei pasiesa ha”, vaw tah thlâh ha ta.

            Chatanachata, satliapa cha O lâ thlai adi ta, a laihsanô pachha a chhuahpa ta sie ha ta. Liahsa a vaw zoh nahta cha laihsapa cha chi ngâsâ ha ta, Syukipa hra cha laihsanô ano deita lyu lia â rie tahpa a pahnopa vâta nie achhuahpa ta chapu laichahrih liana chata a byh thlâh ha ta. Laihsapa cha meizy pakâ taraw ta, liahsa zâ zy a vaw rei ha tawhta cha chi kaw hrasala azia lei thai’pa a châ lei tawh cha a zia ha ta. Meizy adiah pathao tawhta Syukipa cha chapu laichahrih tawhta kaw kiah ta laihsanô nie achhuah pathao ha ta. Chapu chhôh liana chata Syukipa nata laihsanô cha a chatôh ngâkaw ei ta. Cha no chata satliapa chhao cha Chapu za tlô ha hra ta. Chapu ry liata a tyuh ta, thisaih za loh ngâkawpa he hmô ta. Satliapa chata cha thisaih cha palie ta, “Chyhsapa thi na châ khiata la thlôh la, Syukipa thi na châ khiata la kha mah y”, tah ta, thisaih cha vaw thlôh ha ta. “E, ei laihsanô cha a thi hapa a châ hih, ei pachha hmâ khao leipa a pei dâh rimâ cha!”, tahpa ta cha ngâkaw ta.

Cha zâ cheingei cha thlâpâ he vaw pha kaw ta, a palôh a lie ngâsâ ta. Laihsanô ei pachha thei lei bâbao, Syukipa chhâ la ei thie tua aw, tahpa ta chapu kiah liata Biatia buh pha kawpa a pahlipa ta Syukipa cha a byh ta, kei pakhu ta. Pyury a thei pataw nahta Syukipa cha laitlâ lâ kaw pua ta, chanô ao hawhta, “Ahy ma na châ tly? Keima deita y na ta, chi kaw na ta, o chô lâ bâh vaw kiah ly”, vaw tah ta. Chyhsapa cha cho a chalih ha ta, Syukipa cha ochhôh lâ a ngia ta, laihsanô nie awpa â chhuah ngâno ta satliapa cha vaw pakhu heih ta. Pyu a thei pataw nahta Syukipa cha thlaita kaw pua heih ta. Chanô ao hawhta, “Ahy ma na châ tly? Keima deita y na ta, chi kaw na ta, o chô lâ bâh vaw kiah ly”, vaw tah heih ta. Satliapa cha cho a chalih ha heih ta, Syukipa cha laihsanô sa nie awpa ta chapu chhôh lâ cha a ngia ha heih ta. Cha pataw nah chata Satliapa cha pakhu heih ta, Syukipa cha hiehâh ngâsâpa ta, “Thiapawh tawhta biepha cha chho na ta, bie reih khoh tlôh leipa chi ta, kheihawhpa chyhsa ma na châ rai, ei cha nie ha tua tlai na”, tahpa ta chapu tawhta vaw pua ta. Laitlâ liata â hlaihlâ ngâno ta Satliapa chata a khipâh liata vaw ka ta, thi ha ta.

            Chatanachata, satliapa cha chapu chhôh lâ cha vâ ngia ta. Laihsapa nata Syukipa ri cha paziakhoh ta, poh ta a phapa ta bupa ta a mothlih cha pathlathlu heih ta. A laihsapa nô chhao cha ano deita a sawchanô lyu liata â rie thlâhpa cha a pachâ pha thai khao hra leipa ta, a sawchapawpa nata mydi khih pavâ hlâta lyu lâ cha za sie hra ei ta. Satliapa â hao kawpa Meithei apiana chôta vaw sie ngâpa cha va hmô ta, “Khataih lâ e na sie? Khih chhao pavâ mâh tlôh va. Eima laihsapa kha na vaw hmô bahlah tlyma?”, tahpa ta hiahri ta. A satliapa chata, “Â, khataih lâ hmah sie bao va na, Thlâpâzy khaih pha kaw a tahpa hnaihta na, Pavaw pakiana lâ ei sie chakhyh laih bao. Aw, nama laihsanô chhao chapu liata za hmô na ta, a mokuh pahâh kaw ta, bie chhao a chho va na, a satliapa nata a ziakhoh ei ta, ama mokuh a pahâh ngâsâ. Nâmo chhao zu u la nama za hmô thlâh ha hra khaw”, tahpa ta sie lymâ ha ta.

            Chatanachata, a nô nata sawchapawpa cha chapu za tlô ei ta, a sawchanô amô thlâhpa cha, “Thyu bâ teh, ahy nahta maw namâ mô?”, tahpa ta poh cha kei hlai ta, a sawchanô nata Syukipa cha kei hmô thlâh ha ta. A nô chata, “Ei saw, ei ngiapachhi bao cha la! He hawhpa nôchâ mah ei vaw rao vei maw”, tahpa ta cha chaimâh ta, khâpa hmahta phahnai khao tlôh leipa ta. “Ei saw, na khopa paw nahta tlâ cha vaw pahneisa molo mawh sala na thi lei awpa tlai”, tahpa ta chana chôta angiapachhina bie cha thata reih ta, châhrasala phahnai khao vei, a sawchanô cha thi ha tlôh ta. A ri cha a sawchapawpa nah chata paso-panô ei ta, vâsâh mothlih chhaota o lâ cha vaw kua ha ei ta. A satliapa o lâ cha vawh ta, alynabiezy va reih ta. A satliapa chata, “Keimozy la eima tao theipa y bao vei, nama  sawchanô chhao mokuh pahâh kawpa ta a satliapa nahta amâ mô thlâh ha khaw. Khâpa hmah pachâ’pa y bao vei, palôh pahâh kawpa ta va y bâ mah y”, tahpa ta biechhâna cha vaw chho ha ta. Phôh patlô, la patlô, Mâhleinô ochhi chapia chapô!

 

 

 

Source: Board of Mara Literature, MADC, Siaha.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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